Haben oder Sein: Die seelischen Grundlagen einer neuen Gesellschaft
Haben oder Sein (To Have or To Be) is a book by Erich Fromm, a psychoanalyst and social philosopher who explored the interaction between psychology and society. The book was first published in 1976 and became a bestseller in Germany and other countries. In this book, Fromm argues that modern society is dominated by the mode of having, which is based on possession, exchange, consumption, and appearance. He contrasts this mode with the mode of being, which is based on living, sharing, understanding, and authenticity. He suggests that the mode of having leads to alienation, anxiety, and violence, while the mode of being leads to human fulfillment, freedom, and creativity.
Fromm draws on various sources of wisdom, such as Buddhism, Taoism, mysticism, and humanistic psychology, to propose a new way of living that transcends the dichotomy of having and being. He advocates for a humanistic socialism that values human dignity, solidarity, and responsibility over material wealth and power. He also calls for a radical transformation of consciousness that would enable people to overcome their narcissism and greed and to develop their capacities for love and reason.
Haben oder Sein is a profound and inspiring book that challenges the dominant values of contemporary society and offers a vision of a more humane and sustainable future.Erich Fromm was born in 1900 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, as the only child of Orthodox Jewish parents. He studied sociology and psychology at the University of Heidelberg and the University of Munich, where he became a disciple of Sigmund Freud. He married Frieda Reichmann, a psychoanalyst, in 1926, but they divorced in 1942. He fled Nazi Germany in 1933 and moved to the United States, where he became a citizen in 1940. He taught at Columbia University, Bennington College, Michigan State University, and New York University. He also worked as a psychotherapist and a social activist. He died in 1980 in Switzerland.
Fromm was one of the founders of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, a group of intellectuals who applied Marxist and psychoanalytic perspectives to analyze the problems of modern society. He was also influenced by existentialism, humanism, and Buddhism. He criticized Freud's emphasis on biological drives and unconscious forces, and argued that human behavior was shaped by social and cultural factors. He also challenged the capitalist system and its consumerist culture, which he believed alienated people from their true selves and their fellow human beings. He advocated for a humanistic socialism that would foster individual freedom, creativity, and social responsibility.
Fromm wrote many books and essays on topics such as love, freedom, morality, religion, and psychoanalysis. Some of his most famous works include Escape from Freedom (1941), The Art of Loving (1956), The Sane Society (1955), The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness (1973), and To Have or To Be? (1976). His writings have influenced many thinkers and activists, such as Martin Luther King Jr., Paulo Freire, ChÃ¶gyam Trungpa, and Erich Fromm himself. a474f39169